> Sergiu Gherghina and Claudiu Marian, “Diversifying Horizontal Clientelism: Private Campaign Funding in the 2020 Elections in Romania”, Paper presented at the 2021 Annual Electoral Integrity Project Conference, 5-9 July 2021.
> Raluca Luțai, Marius Grad, “Manifestation forms of contemporary political clientelism. A literature analysis” (in Romanian), Sfera Politicii,  vol. XXVIII, no. 1-2(203-204), Jan-June 2020, pp.13-23. 
> Sergiu Gherghina and Raluca Luțai, “Beyond Political Parties? Understanding the Acceptance of Electoral Clientelism in Romania”, Paper presented at the European Consortium of Political Research (ECPR) Joint Sessions, 17-28 May 2021. 
> Sergiu Gherghina has recently written a short article in the Cultura magazine (in Romanian) about general trends of electoral clientelism in Romania. The article is available here:

Clientelism is the mechanism through which political parties and candidates use public and private resources to cement their electoral support in society. It involves the exchange of various goods, targeted funds, or development projects for votes. While much research focused on how clientelism works and on its consequences, limited attention has been paid to understanding why clientelism emerges. 

This project aims to explain the variation of clientelism at county level in Romania.
This country is a representative case in Central and Eastern Europe, clientelism is used regularly by political parties, and the Romanian electorate remains open to electoral competitors.

It argues and tests the potential effects of five explanations: party organization, electoral strategies, private donations, economic development and demand for clientelism.
It controls for incumbency, losing votes, and media use.
The analysis is conducted at county level and combines quantitative and qualitative methods.

The project is funded by the Romanian Executive Agency for Higher Education, Research, Development and Innovation Funding (UEFISCDI) for the period 2020-2022, project number: PN-III-P1-1.1-TE-2019-0460.

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